From Self-Defeat to Self-Efficacy
A Series of Diagrams on Helping Students Succeed,
Special Attention to Toxic Self-Esteem
A Working Paper
by Gerald Grow
Originally published on the author's website, June 21, 2010.
I developed the following diagrams a few years ago while
trying to adapt the concept of self-efficacy to teaching. While I want
to credit Bandura with this powerful concept, these are free
adaptations, based as much on the literature of instructional design
and self-directed learning as on Bandura.
am not a scholar of Bandura or of self-efficacy; I am more a concerned
teacher who raided Bandura and any other sources for concepts that
could help me understand certain problems in teaching. My purpose was
to create a model that helps me understand certain students better and
identify better ways to teach. What follows is a mixture of things I
or heard, plus my own ideas, often born on solitary drives home after a
day of teaching. As usual, in order to understand what I was thinking,
I had to convert it into diagrams. This essay is a series of
explanations to accompany the diagrams that contain the ideas.
so many of my writings, this is incomplete. But I decided it was
better to publish this part of an uncompleted idea than publish
no part of a completed idea.
article is about learning from experience, why some students do
not seem to do so, and how you might help them. The difficulty certain
students have in achieving this efficacy -- and sometimes their use of
self-defeating behavior -- present one of the greatest challenges to
teachers. These diagrams provide a way of visualizing self-efficacy,
self-defeat, and the places a teacher can intervene to help convert
defeat into efficacy.
note on style: In
the effort to write simply, I have addressed the explanation to "you."
In some sections, "you" are the teacher; in others, "you" are the
student. The shift should be clear if you look for it. Much of this
concept applies to teachers as well, in their role as lifelong
1. The Spiral of Efficacy
Ideally, learning moves in a spiral, such that each learning
experience teaches you how to learn better next time.
The spiral of learning begins with an attitude of confidence
that leads to good planning (understanding the need, setting goals,
identifying the steps required, finding resources), followed by the
focused application of skill (with good management of time and
resources). This "work" phase requires the ability to monitor yourself
and make corrections as you go along.
The key phase comes next, when you evaluate how the project
came out and how you went about it. At this point, you attribute your
degree of success and failure to specific actions you took and specific
circumstances you worked with.
From this measured success, and with encouragement from your
teachers, peers, and cultures, you approach the next learning project
with greater confidence based on your real accomplishments the last
Learning moves in a spiral -- with each project improving your
ability to carry out the next project -- and giving you the skills and
confidence to do so. That spiral of skill and confidence constitutes
efficacy. (See Figure 1.)
Figure 1. The Spiral of Efficacy
part is important. It is possible to flatten this spiral,
to keep repeating the same action over and over without getting any
better at it. Thus, while it is possible to "learn by doing," it
is also possible to do something without learning from it. While
"active learning" is real, activity does not necessarily lead to
learning. The improvement of skills, and the improvement of learning,
do not take place automatically. They require conscious application and
Figure 2 shows the Spiral of Efficacy with additional detail:
2. The Spiral of Efficacy, with Detail
2. The Spiral of Self-Defeat
In contrast to the Spiral of Efficacy, the Spiral of
Self-Defeat moves from low confidence through a lack of planning to a
half-hearted effort and a poorly completed project. (See Figure 3.)
If you are in this spiral, during the crucial phase of
evaluation, you are not likely to take responsibility for messing up
the results. Instead, you are likely to either blame circumstances or
just give up with "I don't have what it takes."
The world always seems ready to confirm such conclusions
whenever we reach them about ourselves, so there is never a lack of
external discouragement. Discouragement is a free, abundant, and
seemingly limitless resource.
After performing poorly in a learning project, you then
approach the next project with even less expectation of success, lower
confidence, less motivation, and, very likely, less effort. That's
pretty grim, isn't it?
Figure 3. The Spiral of Self-Defeat, Basic
Figure 4 shows the Spiral of Self-Defeat in greater
Figure 4. The Spiral of Self-Defeat, with
A blank version of the Spiral of Self-Defeat can be used to
analyze a self-defeating learning pattern. See Figure 5.
5. The Spiral of Learning, Blank
3. Toxic Self-Esteem
There is another kind of self-defeat that I do not recall
finding in the literature on self-efficacy, one that arises from
overconfidence. I identify this self-defeat with a kind of exaggerated
self-esteem that may have been encouraged by misguided attempts to
encourage students without demanding that they learn real skills and
Figure 6. Toxic Self-Esteem
As in the Spiral of Self-Defeat, this kind of toxic
self-esteem arises in a set of attitudes that lead students to perform
poorly. The attitudes, effort, and attribution are different from
self-defeat, but the outcome is similar: erroneous expectancy leads to
poor performance, which reinforces the erroneous expectancy.
"toxic self esteem" is a challenging concept, I want to spend extra
time on it here. We will begin by considering this kind of self-defeat
the result of an excess of self-esteem. At the end of this section, we
will modify that view somewhat.
A student who suffers from such an excess of self-esteem is
likely to have an unrealistic belief in his own abilities that leads
him to believe that he will be excellent at anything he has never tried
to do. Such students tend to underestimate the difficulty of projects.
They expect things to be easier than they turn out to be.
students sometimes have an attitude I can only think to call
"self-celebrity," in which they appear to consider themselves as people
have already succeeded in life, rather than people who are just
starting out, just learning, just reaching the bottom rung of a tall
ladder that will require many years to climb.
They may implicitly count
on luck to see them through, as if a talent scout will pluck them off
the street one day and overnight make them a rich and famous star. They
do not have a solid belief in the connection between effort and
accomplishment, nor do they have a commitment to that kind of
continuous, long-term work. In some ways, they seem to inhabit a
"pre-bureaucratic" world, where life is not part of an organized social
structure based on procedures and the skills needed to carry out those
procedures. Instead, life to them seems based on personal interactions,
favors, power, and perhaps most of all, magical thinking.
students do little planning, because they see no need for it. In their
minds, to think of doing something is to have accomplished it. They
have not yet begun to learn the complex relationship between the mind's
ability to conceive of a goal and the messy, problem-solving process
necessary to accomplish that goal over time in the real world. They
still live in the abstract, mythic timeless world of idealized
thinking; they have not yet had much experience accomplishing things,
over time, with people, in this world. In order to mature, they need to
carry out many,
many projects imperfectly, and have those projects evaluated
As you might expect on the basis of this characterization,
such students tend to "toss off" their work. They do "whatever." Unlike
the self-defeating student, who does "whatever" and expects it to fail,
the student with excess self-esteem does "whatever" and expects it to
succeed -- indeed, to be exceptional. Such a student's false
self-esteem fills so much of her attention that it is difficult for her
to make room for outside criteria.
One of the fundamental challenges of student life (and
everyone else's) is that, at any moment, we find ourselves on a
continuum with "total freedom" at one end and "total constraint" at the
other. In some situations, we are free to do as we please. In other
situations, we are totally constrained by outside requirements (think
of a tax return).
Students with excess self-esteem judge themselves to be more
free than they actually are. They think they are free to "make it up as
they go along," free from outside judgment, free of outside criteria.
They are extreme musicians in the jazz of life who no longer find it
necessary to play in the same key as anyone else, to play the same
tune, or to stop and start with anyone else. In their own eyes, if they
are performing, the result must surely be wonderful.
The task of a teacher here can be seen as helping the student
realign her understanding of where she is free to be creative and where
she must follow procedures and meet criteria. For this to work, the
criteria must be clearly written down, and the student must be shown
how to compare her results with what is required, and how to evaluate
the process that led to those results and improve it.
Left to her own, the student with excess self-esteem will
evaluate her results far more highly than they deserve, like a child
who is praised for everything. She may say, "Well, I like it," and
consider that definitive, without concern for what others think, what
the project required, or what external criteria need to be met, or what
kind of performance the world is willing to pay for.
Such students may blame others for things that did not come
out well, or blame circumstances.
The remarkable thing about students with excess self-esteem is
that, for the most part, they seem to be completely unaffected by
failure. Such students can toss off a miserably inadequate effort,
receive an "F" on it, and continue to sustain the same
hermetically-sealed self-confidence they had before failing. Already it
sounds strange to say that some students suffer from an excess of
self-esteem; to that I add that some students similarly suffer from an
inability to suffer the consequences of their failures. They
suffer, so to speak, from a lack of ignorance -- where "ignorance"
means a humble recognition that they have much to learn and need to
apply themselves diligently to do so.
I suspect that various versions of this syndrome contribute to
what is generally seen as "student disengagement" and "student
last part of the chart above (in the lower left) indicates that the
may repeatedly tell such students that they are good enough as they
are. Teachers may have rewarded some students for doing mediocre work
as long as those students sat quietly, kept still, and did not cause
trouble. Such students can arrive at high school or college expecting
be praised for everything they do -- or needing such praise, or even
addicted to praise. They may be figuratively covered with the gold
stars of previous praise, but otherwise embarrassingly naked.
To some degree, all parents have to overinflate their children
in the effort to encourage them to tackle difficult things in life and
believe that they can succeed. There may be special reasons why some
parents carry such praise too far. In an effort to insulate the
self-esteem of their children from a prejudicial world, some parents
may encourage a self-esteem that is unrelated to external judgment.
There is a place for such a view, which might come in the form of, "In
the eyes of God, we are all perfect."
But work in the world does not take place in the realm of pure
being; it takes place in the intersection between idealized goals and
the messy realm of time, one's own body, objects, and other people --
the very things "project management" attempts to manage.
It is helpful to think of "esteem" as a feeling about being and "efficacy" as a feeling
about doing things in the world. Conflating the
two leads to the problems attributed above to excess self-esteem.
The problem we have been considering, then, is not strictly
the result of too much self-esteem; rather, it is the result of
mistakenly transferring a view of the self from the timeless, abstract,
idealized, even "spiritual" realm directly into the physical realm and
expecting it to function perfectly. The kind of self-defeat described
here as toxic self-esteem comes from mistaking self-efficacy for
self-esteem -- which leads easily to such errors as, "But officer, I'm
a good person, and good people do not speed!"
This essay is in part about the importance of "attitudes" or
"dispositions" -- the affective domain that is so often omitted when
the cognitive part only of Bloom's Taxonomy is used in organizing
lessons. Cognitive skills have little value without the affective
skills -- the attitudes, dispositions, character, values, commitments
-- that motivate people to apply cognitive skills meaningfully in the
And, as the diagrams repeatedly suggest, attitudes and applied
skills mutually shape one another. In the next section, we ask what
students can do to help themselves out of self-deafeat, and what
teachers can do to help students. In other words, we will be asking how
to use actions to improve attitudes, which then improve the actions
that then improve the attitudes, in a constructive spiral.
The value of these diagrams comes when you use them to
identify places you can make constructive changes -- interventions you
can make to help yourself. Or, if you are a teacher, you can identify
places where you can help students who are caught in the spiral of
Figure 7 shows the spiral of self-defeat with the main intervention
points identified. More detail will follow.
Intervention Points, Basic
Inner and Outer Work
Notice that two phases are largely
"inner" and two are more "outer." The phases of Atrribution and
Expectancy are inner phases. What happens in them takes place largely
inside the student.
One of the best places to start is with self-evaluation.
It answers questions like, "To what do you attribute the results? Why
did things come out the way they did?" Be honest with yourself. Choose
a learning project that did not work well and make a careful catalog of
just what you did and did not do in it.
Find out as best you can exactly
how you helped it to fail. There is a great reason for doing this. If
you can acknowledge that you caused yourself to fail, that means you
have the power to affect the outcome. Next time, you can make yourself
succeed better. If you accept the blame, you are no longer a victim;
you are a doer, an agent, a person with real power.
you have the power to make something fail, and you realize you have the
power to help it succeed. That's an amazing thought, isn't
it? Failure -- seen in the light of efficacy -- is empowering.
How do you "tune" yourself when you begin a project? Do
you feel a lack of confidence? Confusion? Nerves? Irritation?
Overconfidence? A "don't care" attitude? Do you look at the project as
just something to get out of the way?
Or do you approach each project as
an opportunity to learn something new, and to practice your skills? Do
you look on the work as imposed from outside, or do you set out to make
this your own, to own it, to engage with it, to embrace it, to make
this learning a permanent part of your life and your world?
You don't always get to choose your
projects, but you always get to choose your attitude, and the attitude
you choose can have a powerful influence on how well you do, how much
you learn, and how well you enjoy the project.
Monitor your attitude carefully,
and watch if it changes during the project. Strive for an open,
curious, engaged attitude, where you say to yourself,
- "I'm going to give this my best shot, and I'm going to
learn from how it comes out. Whatever happens, it is going to be interesting."
In order to complete a project, you have to define a project that you
are capable of completing; you need a project matched to your skills
and resources. So, set a goal that is realistic. Don't shoot for the
moon; aim to get around the block in a way that accomplishes
Work to understand what the project
is about. Clearly identify what you need to accomplish, where you need
to get to. What is the goal?
Then identify where you are
starting from. What is the starting point? What do you have now? What
do you need to do? Think of the project as moving from where you are
now to where you need to be at the end.
Identify two kinds of resources
that can help you: people and things. What people do you need to
consult? Whom do you need to interview, read, listen to, observe? What
material resources do you need -- books, money, travel, equipment,
etc.? Identify which resources you can realistically obtain. If you
can't get what you need to complete the project, you'll need to choose
a diffent goal.
This is the phase of the work itself. This is where you
work hard and work smart, applying your skills as diligently as you can
to complete the project at hand.
One key to this part of a project
is to divide the larger goal into small steps, then complete each of
the steps. To do this, you have to make your plan, then carry it out.
One helpful approach is to use a
calendar to mark the day when you need to have the project finished,
then back up day by day to allot the time it will require to complete
each of the steps of the project. Pencil them in; make time for them.
This way, you'll see just what you need to have finished by a given
date. This kind of time management will help keep you on track.
Yet even here the inner work
While you are applying your best
skills to manage this project and manage the people and resources it
involves, keep listening for the voice of self-defeat inside
yourself, the whisper of discouragement, the voice that says things
- "I can't do this,"
- "I'm not good enough," or
- "It's no use."
Everybody who bothers to listen can
hear that discouraging voice. It's a universal thing -- so, having it
is no big deal. What matters is how you respond to it. Don't fight it.
Just keep saying things like,
- "Maybe so, but I'm going to give this my best
- "No matter how this comes out, I'll be able to say I did
the best job I could."
- "No matter what, this is going to be interesting, I am going to learn
from it, and I am going to get better from doing it."
One of the great secrets is this:
Many highly successful people hear such voices in themselves every time
they undertake something. Many highly successful people suffer from low
self-esteem, depression, discouragement, poor self-image, and a lack of
confidence. Indeed, a tendency toward such discouragement is almost a
requirement for certain highly creative people.
What do they do? Instead of working
against or under that discouraging voice, they
work for the goal. They set a
worthwhile, achievable goal, then work hard and work smart to achieve
it. They say to the discouragment, "Don't bother me. I'm busy now. Come
Instead of depending on feeling
good or feeling motivated, successful people depend on their skills and
processes. They don't work when they feel like it. They work when there
is work to be done. They don't wait for inspiration or motivation, they
set into motion the process that will result in accomplishing the
Writers, for example, write whether
they feel like it or not, day in and day out. To be more exact, writers
enter themselves into the writing process itself, the process of
planning, researching, writing, and revising that produces results.
That way, they don't have to "write." Instead, they immerse themselves
in a process that produces writing.
What these diagrams display is a
similar process. With time and practice, you learn how to learn. You
learn how to do things. Then, when a project comes up, you can plan
your process of work carefully and throw yourself into its steps as
they, one by one, accumulate into a final result that it is not
possible to achieve all at once.
Again and again in life, people are
faced with things they have never done before. They cannot say, "I know
how to do this," because it is new to them. Instead, they say, "I know
how to figure this out. I know an approach that will take me into the
problem and lead me to results."
And that brings us back to
Planning is where you come to terms
with the fact that you cannot do everything at once. You have to divide
big jobs into a sequence of small tasks, then check off each one as you
complete it and stack it into place.
To take an example: Nobody writes a
book. What they do is engage in a series of steps that complete the
parts that add up to a book. The secret is in planning the work,
dividing up the task, and completing a series of small, manageable
tasks that add up. That's working smart.
Figure 8 shows in more detail the
spiral of self-defeat and the intervention points that help convert it
into a spiral of efficacy.
Figure 8. Intervention Points, with Detail
4a. The Most Important Step
depends on an attitude of positive expectancy that is coupled to a
systematic approach to planning a project, carrying it out, evaluating
the results, learning from the experience, and applying that knowledge
so the next project goes better. Although every step is important, the
first step is the key to all the rest
-- because, without an attitude of positive expectancy, a student will
not try new things, apply skills, feel motivated, or do the best
far the most important intervention is represented by the arrow that
connects the Attribution Stage with the Expectancy Stage. At
this crucial point, several distinctions are important.
First, students must be monitored to be certain
they have carried out a self-assessment and attributed their success
and failures to their own efforts. At this point, a failure is as
valuable as a success, because, when students recognize they they are
responsible for a failure, they have the opportunity to realize that,
by changing their approach, they can achieve a better result next time.
Figure 9. From Attribution to Expectancy
students must be monitored to make sure they recognize external
influences on Expectancy. They must learn to identify and counter
discouragement from the environment. They must learn to cultivate
encouraging, empowering messages from the environment. And they must
learn to generate their own self-motivating self-talk -- "I can do
this." "Even if I fail at this, I will learn something worthwhile."
"Grappling with difficult problems makes me stronger."
teachers must be careful to strike a balance between providing positive
encouragement and not making students dependent on the teacher for that
encouragement. The goal is to help students learn to
encourage and empower themselves. This is not an easy balance to
achieve. Students need encouragement; they also need the freedom to
learn from their own experience. Students need independence; they also
need support. Students need to have someone to lean on; but teachers
have to keep students from depending on teachers to do things students
need to do for themselves. For further ideas on how to seek this
balance, see my article, "Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed."
must make certain that students actually learn from experience. This
may be the single most important point in this article. Learning from
experience, in this model, means a student evaluates a learning
experience, decides what went well and what went badly, finds out why
(establishes attribution for successes and failures), then makes a plan
for how to do better next time. All these steps add together to
contribute to an attitude of positive expectancy. This kind of positive
attitude is not based on praise from other people, but on an inner
sense of accomplishment.
at the next learning project, the teacher may need to remind
students to apply what they learned from the last project. For a while,
the teacher may need to be an essential part of a student's sense of
of the hardest questions in education, and in life, is why people
sometimes do not learn from experience, but instead keep repeating the
same mistakes, unsuccessful actions, or partially successful actions,
time and again. The piecemeal nature of schooling trains many students
to learn, pass a test, then forget. This model is an attempt
to understand how people learn
from experience, what happens when they do not, and how to help those
who are not learning from experience. Learning from experience is the
essence of efficacy.
5. The Spiral of Improvement (short)
Now we return to where we started and add some details.
Figure 10 summarizes what we have been
considering. It identifies each of the phases of a process of
continuous growth and improvement as a learner. In continuous
improvement, learning moves in a spiral instead of a circle, because
each learning project prepares you to do better on the next one.
Most learners need to improve in several (or all) the phases,
but phases 5 and 6 are so crucial that they are worth re-emphasizing.
These phases remind you to learn from everything you do, with the
intention of doing better next time. These phases remind you to go into
each new project building on what you learned from previous projects,
to have an improvement plan of what you are going to do differently
next time, and put it into effect.
Figure 10. The Spiral of
Finally, Figure 11 presents the Spiral of Improvement with more
detail. It brings the whole idea into one diagram.