Smith, Reading (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, 1985. Back
2. See Frank Smith's essay against "information" in Essays Into Literacy, London: Heinemann, 1983, Chapter 13; and the deconstruction of the idea of information in John D. Peters, "Information: Notes Toward a Critical History," Journal of Communication Inquiry, 12, (2), 1989, pp. 9-23. A moratorium on the word "information" would force all of us to rethink what we mean. Back
3. For the view that no paradigm shift has yet taken place, see Michael L. Kamil, "Current Traditions of Reading Research," in P. D. Pearson (Ed.), Handbook of Reading Research, New York, Longman, 1984, pp. 39-62. Back
4. George H. Mead, The individual and the social self (Ed. David L. Miller). University of Chicago Press, 1982.
5. J. Piaget, Six Psychological Studies. (New York, Random House, 1967.)
6. Lev S. Vygotsky, Thought and Language, Ed. and trans. Eugenia Hanfmann and Gertrude Vakar (Cambridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press, 1962; Originally published in Russian in 1934).
7. F. C. Bartlett, Remembering, London, Cambridge University Press, 1932.
8. Susanne Langer, Philosophy in a New Key. Harvard, 1951.
9. Ernst Cassirer, Essay on Man: An Introduction to a Philosophy of Human Culture. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1944.
10. Those familiar with some of the literature will recognize in this paper a "top-down" or "inside-out" model of reading that emphasizes the reader's activity, in contrast to the "bottom-up" or "outside-in" model which emphasizes the words on the page. Back
11. The terminology is unsettled. "Psycholinguistic," which may be a better term, does not seem to be taking the world by storm, and many who practice "cognitive" research imply the information-transmission model of communication, overly use computer models of mind, and neglect the existential, emotional, bodily, and social frameworks that support and shape cognition.
12. Sharon J. Derry, "Learning Strategies for Acquiring Useful Knowledge. In Dimensions of thinking and cognitive instruction, ed. Beau Jones & Lorna Idol (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1990), p. 347 - 379. Back
13. Frank Smith, Understanding Reading: A Psycholinguistic Analysis of Reading and Learning to Read (4th ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1988, p. 22. Back
14. Frank Smith, Understanding Literacy, p. 53. How do readers of journalistic publications learn to ask appropriate questions and find relevant answers in what journalists write? Back
15. Derry, op. cit., p. 352. Back
16. See, for example, Kathleen T. McWhorter, Efficient and Flexible Reading (3rd ed.). New York: Harper Collins, 1992. Back
17. Jean Matter Mandler, Stories, scripts, and scenes: Aspects of schema theory. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1984.
18. The Image: Knowledge in Life and Society. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1963. Back
19. E.g., Neural Networks and Natural Intelligence, Ed. Stephen Grossberg, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1988. This brief summary omits the distinction between "declarative" knowledge (information) and "procedural" knowledge (how to do something) that is important to the network model. See Ellen D. Gagné, The Cognitive Psychology of School Learning (Boston: Little, Brown, 1985) or Derry, op. cit.
20. E. Gagné, op. cit., p. 79. Back
21. For relevant introductions to schema theory, see Richard C. Anderson, "Role of the Reader's Schema in Comprehension, Learning, and Memory," in Richard C. Anderson et al. eds., Learning to Read in American Schools (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1984). Also R. C. Anderson and P. D. Pearson's "A Schema-Theroetic View of basic Processes in Reading Comprehension," in P. D. Pearson (Ed.), Handbook of Reading Research, New York, Longman, 1984, pp. 255-291 Back
22. Understanding Reading, p. 28ff. Smith also summarizes the importance of narrative in the way we organize experience (p. 226ff), also a theme in Jean Mandler's Stories, scripts, and scenes: Aspects of schema theory. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1984. Back
23. James M. Barrie, Peter Pan, New York: Grossett and Dunlap, 1965 (first pub. 1911). At the moment quoted, Wendy is telling her own story to the Lost Boys, in chapter 11. Back
24. Many jokes depend on knowledge of underlying schemas. Here is one I adapted from a lawyer joke: "Near the end of the Gulf War, a planeload of journalists was hijacked by Iraqi terrorists. The terrorists threatened that, if their demands were not met, they would release one journalist every hour." The joke depends on your knowledge of the usual schema for a hijacking and of an unrelated schema which maps a common antagonism between journalists and authorities. The joke gains its humor by unexpectedly switching the definition of the authorities' role from the first schema to the second. Back
25. David E. Rumelhart and Donald A. Norman, "Accretion, Tuning, and Restructuring: Three modes of Learning," in J. W. Cotton & R. L. Klatzky (Eds.), Semantic Factors in Cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1978) pp. 37-54. Back
26. The Image, p. 10. Back
27. See Nancy Cantor, "From Thought to Behavior: 'Having' and 'Doing' in the Study of Personality and Cognition," American Psychologist, 1990, 45 (6), pp. 735-750.
28. No account of reading can ignore poignant stories of how the acquisition of literacy has cost some people their native culture and identity. See, for example, Richard Rodriguez, The hunger of memory: The education of Richard Rodriguez. Boston: Godine, 1981. Back
29. R. C. Anderson, "Role of the Reader's Schema," p. 243. Back
30. J. D. Bransford and M. K. Johnson, "Contextual Prerequisites for Understanding. Some Investigations of Comprehension and Recall," Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1972, 61, 717-726.
31. For about a year, whenever I read him The Flopsy Bunnies, my son heard the phrase "Mr. McGregor's rubbish heap" as "Mr. McGregor's rubber sheep." By the time we discovered this mis-hearing, he had developed some interesting thoughts about the "rubber sheep" in this Peter Rabbit story. Imagine the perplexity of the cartoon dog who thought his master was saying, "Heal!" Back
32. R. C. Anderson and P. D. Pearson, "A Schema-Theroetic View of Basic Processes in Reading Comprehension," in P. D. Pearson (Ed.), Handbook of Reading Research, New York, Longman, 1984, p. 272. Back
33. This is a basic theme of schema theory--e.g., J. Bransford, "Schema Activation--Schema Acquisition," in R.C. Anderson, J. Osborn, & R.C. Tierney (Eds.), Learning to Readin American Schools. Erlbaum, 1983. Back
34. Reading, p. 72.
35. Understanding Reading, p. 30. While I was trying out this idea on a faculty group, one man interrupted by gleefully spelling, "C-A-T" and demanding that I explain what schema was necessary to understand such a simple, unambiguous word.
Peter Pan came to my rescue: To terrorize the captured Lost Boys, Captain Hook threatens, "Do you want a touch of the cat before you walk the plank?" The boys fall to their knees and beg to be spared, but Hook grimly orders, "Fetch the cat, Jukes."
I wonder how many wide-eyed children have visualized Jukes emerging from the cabin carrying, not the cat-o'-nine-tails whip, but some imaginary and terrifying feline. Back
36. The information-transmission model is vividly critiqued by James W. Carey in Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society, Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989.
37. See Frank Smith, Understanding Reading: A Psycholinguistic Analysis of Reading and Learning to Read (4th ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1988. Also Reading, Cambridge University Press, 1985, and Essays Into Literacy, London: Heinemann, 1988). Back
38. For a good summary, see"Metacognitive Skills and Reading" by Linda Baker and Ann L. Brown, in P. D. Pearson (Ed.), Handbook of Reading Research, New York, Longman, 1984, pp. 353-394. Back
39. Joseph L. Vaughn, "Concept Structuring: The Technique and Empirical Evidence," in Charles D. Holly and Donald F. Dansereau, eds., Spatial Learning Strategies: Techniques, Aplications, and Related Issues (Orlando, Fla.: Academic Press, 1984) p. 127.
40. Jones et al., 1987 Back
41. Allan Paivio, Mental Representations: A Dual Coding Theory (Oxford: Clarendon, 1986). Back
42. The social aspect of communication is an important area not considered in this paper. For a clearly-written account, see Leeds-Hurwitz (1989). For a more postmodern view, see various works of M. Foucault, such as The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. New York: Random Hosue, 1970. Back
43. Jones et al., 1987, pp. 33-34. For a more involved discussion that includes discourse analysis and story grammar, see "The Structure of Text," by Bonnie J. F. Meyer and G. Elizabeth Rice, in P. D. Pearson (Ed.), Handbook of Reading Research, New York, Longman, 1984, pp. 319-352. Back
44. The idea is widespread but not widely applied. See, for example, William J. Vande Kopple, "Some exploratory discourse on metadiscourse" College Communication and Composition, 1985, 36: 82-93. Many writers leave out transitional words and phrases, because they believe "good writers" don't need them. In doing do, they fail to realize that readers need those transitional terms to activate the cognitive processes of comprehension. Notice also how the traditional inverted pyramid news report requires that such connective structure-signals be omitted, presumably to make shortening easier. You can't cut a paragraph that begins, "On the other hand" or "Finally." Back
45. Jones, et al., p. 25. Recent work by Jones and others on semantic organizers raises the possibility that certain kinds of diagrams may be closer to the mind's way of storing knowledge than are paragraphs and sentences. What we know as reason may be not so much a reflection of the nature of mind or the nature of reality as it is the kind of analysis required before you can write in linear, fully-elaborated, fully-connected prose. See John H. Clarke, Patterns ofTthinking : Integrating Learning Skills in Content Teaching. Boston : Allyn and Bacon, 1990.
46. Smith, Understanding Reading, p. 46. Back
47. David N. Perkins, "Thinking Frames," Educational Leadership, May 1986, p. 7. The concept of frames is usually credited to Marvin Minsky in "A Framework for Representing Knowledge," in P.H. Winston (Ed.), The Psychology of Computer Vision. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975. Back
48. Richard C. Anderson and B.B. Armbruster, "Studying," In P.D. Pearson, ed., Handbook of Reading Research (New York: Longman, 1985) pp. 657-680. Back
49. In presentations I attended in the fall of 1991 at Florida A&M University, participants in the Knight-Ridder and Gannett redesign projects spoke often of their own focus groups and reader surveys but indicated that cognitive research did not play a major role in the redesign of their newspapers. Indeed, the language I have heard used by industry innovators is sprinkled with terms from information and stimulus-response theories and notably lacking in terms from cognitive theory. For example, Knight-Ridder editors have described certain topics as "hitting the baby boomer's hot buttons." One morning those boomers, who as strategic readers want to be treated with respect, may tire of being manipulated by contrived content and intrusive layout. Back
50. Knight-Ridder 25/43 Project: The Transformation of an American Newspaper (Author, 1989).
51. C. Argyris & D. A. Schoen, Theory In Practice: Increasing Professional Effectiveness (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1976). Back
Please use a form of citation that contains the following elements:
Grow, Gerald O. (1996). "Serving the Strategic Reader: Reader Response Theory and Its Implications for the Teaching of Writing," an expanded version of a paper presented to the Qualitative Division of the Association for Educators in Journalism and Mass Communication. Atlanta, August, 1994. Available on-line at: <http://www.longleaf.net/ggrow>. Original paper available as Eric Documentation Reproduction Service No. ED 406 644.