Gerald Grow's Website
Professor of Journalism
Florida A&M University
copyright © 1994, 1996
This study traces a major theoretical shift in our understanding
of how people read--from the passive reader who
receives and decodes information to the strategic reader
who actively chooses what, when, and how to read, reads interpretively,
and interprets the article as an organized structure.
The result is a series of recommendations on how to write for such readers. An extensive annotated bibliography is included.
Though originally directed to the teaching of journalism, this article has been enlarged to extend its conclusions to the teaching of writing in general.
Authenticity: This is a working paper, based on a pilot study. It contains a literature review, careful observations of a limited number of cases, and a considerable amount of informed speculation.
Publication history: This is an original WWW publication. An earlier version was given as a refereed presentation at a professional conference (Association for Educators in Journalism and Mass Communication, 1994).
A Cognitive Model of Learning
Figure 1. A Cognitive Model of Learning
Steps 1 - 3: Comprehension
Steps 4 and 5: Learning
Steps 6 and 7: Recall and Reconstruction
The Organization of Knowledge
Figure2: Memory as a Network
Figure 3: The Restaurant Schema
The Effects of New Knowledge
The Strategic Reader
Strategies of Readers -- Cognitive and Metacognitive
The Role of Text in Comprehension
Implications for Teaching and Journalism
Table 1. How to Serve the Strategic Reader